Traumatic brain injury (TBI) or acquired brain injury occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object, or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue.  Brain injury can cause permanent impairments that can manifest in many areas including mobility, feeding ability, speech, cognition, and can affect many other important functions.

Numerous peer-reviewed studies have examined the relationship of traumatic brain injury to life expectancy. Increased mortality has been shown to be most closely associated with mobility (e.g. degree of walking ability) and feeding ability (g-tube, feeding by others, self feeding). Sex and age also plays a role, as does the need for ventilation support. Brain injuries are associated with higher risks of dementia (including Alzheimers), Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, as well as cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease.